License to use these maps:

As a labor of love at auut studio, it took more than two years to design and produce this map. We utilized a number of resources in the Creative Commons to draw the counties and railroads that help us visualize the historical United States, as well as to display the approximate location for each lynching on the map. (Scroll down for additional details.) As a result, any map images you would like to use are shared-alike by the studio under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA-4.0.

THIS MEANS: Yes! You may re-mix this map or use static versions of it for your homework, school report, classroom or any other non-commercial use if you give us credit and link to And: if you are publishing your work, you must share any new version you make with the same license. Please note that if you wish to copy the interactive basemap powered by the Mapbox service to another website, then you are responsible for creating an account with to abide by their own Terms of Service.

All other rights reserved © 2020 by auut studio.

To obtain permission for any other use of the map, please contact the studio... a real human reads all our mail. To use the data, please see the downloads page.

Map Credits:

designed in 2019-2020 by auut studio

This is a map of those lynchings and deadly mob violence which were directed against people of color — which represents a hugely disproportionate part of such violence. The evolution of this form of violence, which also was used earlier in the 1800s to kill white suspects of certain crimes, is discussed on the page The rise of Lynching.

The source for all of these deaths is the Monroe Work Today Dataset Compilation, version 1.2. More information about this eight-year data collection effort can be found on the Bibliography page.

The basemap of North America attempts to recreate the boundaries of the US interior as of 100 years ago, and the local counties drawn on the land are the ones that existed in the year 1916. The borders of Native American nations, reservations and agencies (and the lands recently opened from them) are also shown from that decade.

This basemap was designed in MapBox Studio with data from Mapbox Places (other countries, US state borders, the labels of cities and states) and Mapbox Terrain (the mountains, and water/waterways at high zoom levels) that are © Mapbox and © OpenStreetMap. In order to go back in time, no information relating to OpenStreetMap roadways was used here.

Railroad tracks, circa 1910 – 1920, were digitized from historical maps in the public domain and added to the 1870 dataset downloaded from the Aurora Project (now called Railroads and the Making of Modern America) of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, which is published "free and open-source" for educational and research use.

The boundaries of US counties circa 1916 are derived from the generalized version (0.001 degree tolerance) of the amazing resources produced by the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries of The Newberry Library. It is used under Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA 2.5. The derivations created by auut studio and used on this site can be found on the downloads page.

The gradient of the US population density in 1910 is an artistic visualization rather than precise boundaries. The data is derived from the US Census tables and counties compiled by the Minnesota Population Center, National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) version 2.0, at the University of Minnesota, 2011.

The Indian Agencies and reservations circa 1910 were digitized by hand from historical maps in the public domain.

Some international boundaries were derived from Natural Earth — free vector and raster map data at

The "?" icon for missing data is the work of Linseed Studio. The front-facing skull icon is by Tina Rataj-Berard. The smaller skull & bone is the work of Ricardo Moreira. These are used with a paid license from The Noun Project, but we also wish to credit their creative work (available under CC-BY 3.0).

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